What are cookies?
Cookies are small textual files that the websites visited by a user send to the device (usually to the browser), they are memorised in the correspondent folder of the browser while the user is visiting a website, to be transferred to the same websites in the future visits. They are used with the aim of improving the navigation, (the http protocol is stateless and cannot “remember” the authenticated user who leafs through the pages), saving the user preferences already inserted (username, password, etc.), tracking tastes and preferences of the user allowing to handle the presence of marketing initiatives or the supply of services linked to the owner’s activities such as newsletters, DEMs, etc. If limitations to their use are put in place this will surely have effects on the user state during the consultation. Their block or removal from the browser cache could cause an incomplete fruition of the services offered by the web application.
Typologies of Cookies
Session Cookies are temporary Cookies, that only exists during the use session of the user. When the browser is closed, the session Cookies expire. These are usually used to identify users when they enter a site, to remember the user and his/her preferences in the passage among the web pages, to provide him/her with specific information previously collected. The most common example of this functionality is the basket functionality of an e-commerce site. For instance, when a user visits a catalogue page where to select some voices, the session Cookie remember the selection so that in a virtual shopping basket the elements keep selected when the user is ready for the checkout. Without session Cookies, if the user clicked on checkout, the new page could not recognise the past activities in the previous page and the basket would always stay empty.
The persistent Cookies stay active even after the browser is closed and help the sites to remember data and user settings for a following consultation. This allows a faster and more convenient access in terms of time since there is no need for entering again. As well as the authentication, other functionalities of the website are made possible and include: the language selection, the theme selection, the menu preferences, bookmarks, and much more. During the visit the user selects the preferences and they will be remembered thanks to the persistent Cookie during the following visit.
Third parties Cookies
There are various typologies of Cookies, some of them are named third parties. These are used, for example, by the first site chosen by the visitor, containing ads coming from another server or a third party website. The browser effectively collects the information alimented by different sources so that all the elements are visualised on the same page creating so a Cookies in the corresponding browser folder. All these Cookies can be removed directly from the browser settings or it is possible to block its creation. In this case some site services could not work as they should and could not be possible to access or even lose the user preferences, since there is not the associated Cookie anymore. This way the information would be seen in the wrong local form or may not be available.
Web Beacon: also called “tracking pixel”, “gif 1×1”, “single pixel gif”, “pixel tag” or “action tag”are graphical images, usually not bigger than 1 pixel x 1 pixel that are used in order to collect anonym information about a site way of use made by users and to offer personalised contents. They also allow to identify the types of browser, the words inserted by visitors in the serch engines to reach the site. The Web Beacon in email communications allow to know if a user received, opened or clicked on links provided by the received email.
Cookies Flash or Local shared objects (LSOs) : websites can use some Flash contents, displayed on their pages, to memorise some information on the device. As for HTTP Cookies, local shared objects can be used by websites to collect information on the paths Internet users undertook as regards navigation among websites. Online banks and advertisers can use local shared objects for monitoring aims.
Functionally Cookies are markers that remember user’s choices and then automatise some procedures or allow to personalise the user experience (i.e. they avoid advertising banners in overlay to appear).
Google Analytics is a service offered by Google that generates detailed statistics on a website traffic and its sources. It is the most used statistics service. Google Analytics can monitor visitors coming from all the external links, among which search engines and social networks, direct visits and referral sites.
It also visualises advertisements, pay-per-clicks, e-mail marketing and links in PDF docs.
It is possible to see the circular at the address: http://www.google.it/analytics/learn/privacy.html.
Privacy and security on Cookies
Cookies are not viruses; they are just textual files that are not interpreted by the browser nor executed in memory. Consequently, they cannot duplicate themselves or spread in other networks to be repeated again. Since they cannot carry out these functions, they are not included in the standard definition of virus. But Cookies can be used for dangerous aims. Since thanks to them information on preferences, the history of a user’s action and the specific navigation among various sites are memorised, Cookies can be used to act as a form of spyware. Many anti-spyware products are well aware of this issue and routinely signal Cookies as possible threats.
As regards Flash Cookies, Adobe does not directly provide a tool to personalise the settings of Flash Player linked to their management. To access the various offered regulations, it is instead necessary to access any web page containing the carried out creativity, right click with the mouse, choose the option global settings and then click on the link panel general privacy settings. Alternatively, it is possible to directly visit the page:
It is good to remember that if Flash Cookies are eliminated or the memorisation is completely de-activate, some websites may not operate as expected anymore. Flash Cookies can be employed, for instance, to force a new creation of a traditional HTTP Cookie containing the information it previously host.
Other threats based on Cookies
Since Cookies are transferred from the browser to the website, an ill-intentioned user or a not authorised person could intercept the data transfer and the relative information. Although it is relatively rare, this can occur if the browser logs on to the site by using for example a not protected WI-FI network. Other attacks based on Cookies involve the server settings. If a website does not require the browser to only use encrypted information (ex. https), ill-intentioned people can take advantage of this vulnerability to deceive visitors by sending them personal information by throughout unsafe channels. Attackers then change the course of the personal data with not authorised processing purposes.
Cookies on the site Tony Rogliero
The ethical and responsible policy with which elezione.eu treats the aspects that regard Privacy is to include clear descriptions about how Cookies are distributed on the site https://tonyrogliero.com. Most browsers have implemented the functionality of privacy settings that offers different levels of Cookies reception, expiry and elimination after a user has visited a specific site. We intend to be transparent with regard to conditions and aims of the use that tonyrogliero.com makes of Cookies and other technologies. Some example of employed third parties Cookies are:
The site uses Google Analytics to analyse the site use made by users. Google Analytics is a service of web analysis provided by Google, Inc. (“Google”). Google Analytics uses owner Cookies to allow the website to analyse how users use the site. The information generated by the Cookie on the use of the website (included the IP address) will be transferred and deposited in the Google servers in the United States. Google (autonomous holder of the processing) will use this information to track and check your use of the website, compile reports on the activities of the website for the website professionals and provide other services regarding the website activities and the use of the Internet. Google can also transfer this information to third parties where this is imposed by law or where these third parties treat the above-mentioned information on behalf of Google. Google will not associate your IP address to any other datum owned by Google.
For further information, consult the circular on Google privacy available at the address: http://www.google.com/privacypolicy.html.
Social plug-in: Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest. The most common use of social plug-ins aims at sharing contents on social networks. The management of information collected by “third parties” is disciplined by the relevant circulars to refer to. In order to guarantee a better transparency and convenience, the web addresses of the various circulars and modalities of Cookies management are reported here:
The supply of all the Cookies, both of first and third parties, can be deactivated by intervening on the browser settings in use; it is good to notice, however, that this may make the sites unusable whether the necessary Cookies for the functionalities supply stopped. Every browser has different settings to deactivate Cookies; we suggest here the links to the instructions for the most common browsers.
Microsoft Internet Explorer
In order to deactivate analytical Cookies and prevent Google Analytics from collecting data on your navigation, you can download the browser add-on to deactivate Google Analytics: https://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout.
Third parties sites
The third parties sites you can access thanks to this website are not covered by this circular. Tony Rogliero declines any responsibility regarding them. The categories of Cookies used and the kind of personal data processing made by these companies are regulated in conformity with the circular given by these companies.
For the circulars and to deactivate third parties analytical Cookies please go to the site: www.youronlinechoices.com/it